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Before we dive into the details, let’s make sure to define exactly what “DEACTIVATING” means. Deactivating your YouMail account basically puts the account on hold. Calls will no longer forward to the YouMail, but will instead forward back to your carrier. It does NOT delete the app from your phone.

Please note that your carrier controls where your calls are forwarded to. YouMail simply helps you tell your carrier where to forward your calls. Deactivation will simply tell the carrier that you no longer want to forward to our mailbox and that the carrier voicemail is your mailbox of choice.

Why Deactivate?

Some users will choose to deactivate their call forwarding but leave the account open if they have a full inbox and don't want to bother downloading every message or have changed carriers offering a service like YouMail. Others, just opt to take a break. In any case, deactivating your call forwarding does not uninstall the app from your phone. Also, please note that if you’re a paying customer, you’ll still get charged if you do not cancel your YouMail order.

Need to Deactivate?

Please follow the instructions below dependent on your handset and carrier.

Using the Android App: Menu (☰) Return to Carrier Voicemail

Using the iPhone App:

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Below are the carrier deactivation codes. If your carrier requires multiple codes, pleasemake a separate call for each code. For example, if your carrier is ATT, you would do the following:

Dial ##61 and push call
Then dial ##62# and push call
Then dial ##67# and push call

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@ashleymccoy Were you able to find your carrier's deactivation code in the list we provided above? I have also opened up a support ticket for you. Please check your email.

Figure B.6.1.2. Effects of selected human activities on blue mussels to show the linkage framework. Based on systematic literature review using the LiACAT tool (HELCOM 2016e).

Download Figure B6.1.2 as high-resolution image

Box 5.6.1. Reduced welfare from changes in perennial vegetation and fish stocks

Deterioration of marine biodiversity may result in welfare losses to society (See stiletto ankle boots Black Misbhv pkTkfyv
). Although the effects may not be directly observable, people obtain benefits from knowing that the marine ecosystem and its species are thriving. The value for biodiversity is, for the most part, independent of the use of the marine environment, and more related to the knowledge that habitats and species exist and are in good health.

Improved biodiversity and marine health brings about increased economic benefits to citizens, which are lost if the state of the sea does not improve (cost of degradation). Some of these monetary benefits have been assessed in a stated preference choice experiment study carried out in Sweden, Finland and Lithuania in 2011, which elicited citizens’ willingness to pay for improvements with regard to aspects related to marine biodiversity (Kosenius and Ollikainen 2015). The valuation study estimated the benefits from increasing the amount of healthy perennial vegetation (such as underwater meadows) and the size of fish stocks in the Finnish-Swedish archipelago and the Lithuanian coast from current to good status. The benefits were based on people’s willingness to pay for these improvements.

As the study was conducted only in three countries, the benefit estimates had to be transferred to the six other Baltic Sea countries to arrive at a regional estimate. Thus, only the estimates for Finland, Lithuania and Sweden are based on original valuation studies and data collection, and the estimates for Denmark, Estonia, Germany, Latvia, Poland and Russia are based on value transfer. The transferred value estimates were corrected for differences in price and income levels between the countries. The Finnish benefit estimate was transferred to Denmark and Germany, and the Lithuanian estimate to Estonia, Latvia, Poland and Russia. The choice of which estimates to transfer, and where to, was made based on average income levels.

Figure B5.6.1 shows the estimates per person. The results suggest that citizens’ welfare would increase by 1.8–2.6 billion euros annually in the Baltic Sea region, if the state of the perennial vegetation and fish stocks improved to a good status (See also Thematic assessment: HELCOM 2018A). It is worth noting that there is more uncertainty about these estimates compared to the estimates for eutrophication and recreation, as some of the values are based on benefit transfer.

Figure B5.6.1. Benefit losses related to perennial vegetation and fish stocks. Note that estimates for Finland, Lithuania and Sweden are based on original valuation studies and data collection, and estimates for the six other countries are based on value transfer from Finland (Denmark and Germany) and Lithuania (Estonia, Latvia, Poland and Russia). The range comes from the 95 % confidence intervals for the value estimates reported in the original study. Value estimates are in purchasing power parity adjusted 2015 euros. Source: Kosenius and Ollikainen (2015).

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Box 5.4.1. Incidental by-catch of mammals in fishing gear

A HELCOM core indicator to assess the number of drowned mammals and waterbirds caught in fishing gear is undergoing further development. Drowning in fishing gear is believed to be the greatest source of mortality for harbour porpoise populations in the Baltic Sea, and is also a concern for seals (Core indicator report: HELCOM 2018au). The risk of incidental by-catch is highest in various types of gillnets but other stationary fishing gear, such as fyke nets and push-up traps also have incidental by-catches (ICES 2013a, Vanhatalo 2014).

Incidental by-catches of harbour porpoise in the Kattegat and Belts Seas were calculated at 165 to 263 animals in 2014, based primarily on information from CCTV cameras on commercial vessels in combination with data on fishing (ICES 2016e). However, the numbers are associated with high uncertainties, concerning both incidental by-catch numbers and the amount of fishing activity taking place. Documentation of incidental by-catch of harbour porpoise in the Baltic Proper is fragmented, typically amounting to a few animals per year from the countries that are reporting by-catch of this species. However, dead harbour porpoises showing signs of having been entangled in gillnets are found and reported regularly, so it is likely that by-catch in gillnets is adversely affecting the critically endangered central Baltic Sea population (ICES 2017a).

The annual incidental by-catch of grey seals in trap nets and gill nets was estimated at around 2,180- 2,380 seals in 2012, based on interviews with fishermen from Sweden, Finland and Estonia, and accounting for the variability in seal abundance, fishing activity, and underreporting (Vanhatalo 2014). There are no estimates of the incidental by-catch of ringed seals or harbour seals.

Box 5.3.1. The red-listed eel

Eel () has been a common species across the Baltic Sea historically, occurring even in the far north. With a common recruitment area in the Sargasso Sea all eel in Europe and the Mediterranean are part of the same (panmictic) population, occurring in scattered marine, coastal, river and lake ecosystems.

Eel is listed as critically endangered (HELCOM 2013b). A main concern is that the recruitment of eel has decreased sharply since the 1980s (Moriarty and Dekker 1997, ICES 2016). Probably, a decreasing trend has been present even longer (Dekker and Beaulaton 2016). Eel is subject to many pressures in its natural environment, and the recent declines can likely be explained by a combination of several factors, including overfishing, inland habitat loss and degradation, mortality in hydropower turbines, contaminants, parasites and climatic changes in the spawning area (Moriarty and Dekker 1997, ICES 2017g).

The status of the eel stock has been poorly documented until recently, with incomplete catch statistics being one issue. There are indications that the eel in the Baltic Sea constitutes about a quarter of the total population of European eel today. Fishing yield all over Europe has gradually diminished since the mid-1900s, and is now below 10 % of the quantity caught in the past. In the Baltic Sea, there is a decreasing number of licensed fishermen targeting eel, and there have been efforts to ban recreational fishing and to decrease the number of licensed fishers (ICES 2016d).

In 2007, the EU eel regulation implemented a distributed control system, setting a common restoration target at the international level, and obliging EU countries to implement the required protective measures. The aim is to ensure that 40 % of mature eels make it to the sea, in relation to estimated pristine conditions. The required minimum protection has not yet been achieved, and although eel management plans are being established on a national level, no joint management and assessment actions have been achieved. Eel has recently been included in Appendix II of the Convention of Migratory Species, and they are also conserved through the EU Habitats Directive.

Box 4.7.1 Method to estimate loss and disturbance of the seabed

Physical loss is defined as a permanent change of seabed substrate or morphology, meaning that there has been change to the seabed which has lasted or is expected to last for a long period (more than twelve years (EC 2017a). The following activities were considered in the assessment as potentially causing loss of seabed: construction at sea and on the shoreline (including cables and pipelines, marinas and harbours, land claim, mariculture, extraction of sand and gravel, and dredging) (Figure 4.7.1).

Physical disturbance is defined as a change to the seabed which can be reverted if the activity causing the disturbance ceases (EC 2017a). The same activities as in the assessment of physical loss, and trawling, were considered as causing physical disturbance (acting via the pressures of siltation, smothering, and abrasion). In addition, shipping was included as potentially causing physical disturbance (Figure 4.7.1).

The potential extent of loss and disturbance of the seabed was estimated by identifying the spatial distribution of human activities exerting these pressures. The extent of pressures was estimated based on information from literature, and the data sets were aggregated into two layers, representing physical loss and physical disturbance, respectively. Whether an activity in reality leads to loss of or disturbance of habitats depends on many factors, such as the duration and intensity of the activity, the technique used and the sensitivity of the area affected.

The identification of which activities lead to loss and/or physical disturbance is still under development and therefore the categorisations used up to now are preliminary.

The aggregated layers were also compared with information on the spatial distribution of broad benthic habitat types, in order to estimate the potentially lost and disturbed areas of benthic habitats For more information, see the thematic assessment; HELCOM (2018E).

The results are presented descriptively as an indication of the potential extent of the pressure. However, no threshold values are defined for physical loss and disturbance and thus no value judgement of status is placed on the results.

Confidence in the assessment has not been calculated because the data layers include only information on which potential pressures are present, while their absence according to the data may reflect a true absence or missing information. Therefore the potential loss and disturbance can be underestimated in some sub-basins due to lack of data on specific pressures. It is however possible to qualitatively evaluate gaps in the pressure layers based on knowledge of the national data sets that are underlying the Baltic wide layers. The data layers used in this assessment include all layers listed in HELCOM (2017E).

Box 4.6.2 Evaluation method

Fishing mortality was assessed in relation to the level estimated to deliver a long term maximum sustainable yield, referred to as F, based on analytical assessment models. The assessment of spawning stock biomass is made in relation to the associated reference value ‘MSY B-trigger’ (ICES 2017a). No assessment is yet available for the age and size distribution. The assessment results presented here give the average results for the years 2011 to 2016, using reference values from 2016 (Box 4.6.1).

Proxy reference points are used for some data-limited stocks. For stocks where sufficient data for an analytical assessment are lacking, ICES provides fisheries advice based on historical data on catches, recruitment, harvest rate and biomass.

For the migratory species, ICES gives advice on salmon () individually by for each river stock, using a different framework for setting reference values in relation to MSY (ICES 2017d-e), and qualitative overviews for sea trout (ICES 2017f). Results for the HELCOM core indicators on salmon and sea trout () are shown in Chapter 5.3.

Species which are found and fished in the Baltic Sea, but for which the Baltic Sea fisheries have limited importance are not included, such as mackerel (), horse mackerel (), ling (), saithe () and anchovy (Engraulidae), nor commercial species in coastal and transitional waters which are assessed nationally.

Box 4.6.1. Methods used in commercial fishery

Cod () is mainly fished by demersal trawls reaching the seabed. It is also fished with gillnets, often with a by-catch of flatfish, which is also utilised. In times of low cod quotas and high flatfish abundances, flatfishes can become the key target species, especially dab () and flounder (). Pelagic commercial species are almost exclusively sprat () and herring (), and are mainly fished by pelagic trawls, in the water column.

Salmon () is caught by long lines during its feeding stage in the sea, or by trap nets or gill nets during their spawning run, and salmon fishing is also sometimes allowed in river mouths. Drift nets have been fully banned in the Baltic Sea since 2008. The coastal fisheries use mainly gill nets, pound nets, trap nets, and in some areas Danish seines. A variety of species are targeted, depending on season and availability, including herring, cod and flounder and coastal freshwater species such as pikeperch () and perch (). Demersal trawling occurs in some coastal areas, but is forbidden in the coastal zone in many of the Baltic countries.

Box 4.3.1 What is microlitter?

The term ‘microlitter’ is used for litter particles smaller than 5 mm, but they can also be much smaller (GESAMP 2015). Some studies have focused on particles as small as 20 or even 10 µm. The particles can be synthetic and non-synthetic particles, such as plastic, cellulose, cotton, wool, rubber, metal, glass, combustion particles.

Microlitter particles can originate from land-based sources, for example via waste water, but they are also created at sea during the breakdown of larger litter items or by tearing from equipment used for maritime activities (Lassen 2015, Welden and Cowie 2017).

Microlitter has been detected inside species in all levels of the food web and may be found in all parts of the environment; on the water surface, within the water column, on the seafloor and shore (Lassen 2015). Particles with low density, such as many common plastic types, can also reach the seafloor, by being incorporated in marine snow, attached to sinking detritus, or when they are covered with biofilms which increase their density and hydrophobic state.

Box 4.2.1 Threshold values for hazardous substances

Monitoring of hazardous substances takes place in three types of matrices, namely biota, water and sediment. Each of these has specific threshold values defined for each substance (or substance group). Primary threshold values identify the matrix deemed to be most appropriate for monitoring the specific substance or substance group, though secondary threshold values are commonly established and used where monitoring in the primary matrix is not available. If several threshold values are available, thresholds based on environmental quality standards (EQS) and the sampling matrix biota are preferred. Monitoring of biota reflects the accumulation of contaminants in the living environment.

Box 4.1.3 Effects of climate change on eutrophication

Adaptation to climate change is a central issue for the planning and implementation of measures to reduce nutrient inputs, as well as for adjusting the level of nutrient input reductions to ensure protection of the Baltic Sea marine environment in a changing climate. For example, the maximum allowable inputs are calculated under the assumption that Baltic Sea environmental conditions are in a biogeochemical and physical steady-state. This assumes that the environment will reach a new biogeochemical steady state under the currently prevailing physical steady state, after some time when the internal sinks and sources have adapted to the new input levels. This assumption is not likely to last with a changing climate, as the physical environment is also changing and will feedback upon the biogeochemical cycling, for example by enhancing growth and mineralization rates. Simulations indicate that climate change may call for additional nutrient input reductions to reach the targets for good environmental status of the Baltic Sea Action Plan (Meier 2012). Effects from climate change and input reductions will both take substantial time, and a deepened understanding of the development is needed to support management.

Box 4.1.2. Costs of eutrophication

Eutrophication causes multiple adverse effects on the marine environment which also reduce the welfare of citizens. These include decreased water clarity, more frequent cyanobacterial blooms, oxygen deficiency in bottom waters, changes in fish stocks and loss of marine biodiversity. These effects decrease the environmental benefits from the Baltic Sea, both in terms of use-related values and non-use values.

This is an extraordinary moment in global history. In the past only two children per woman reached adulthood – if more had survived the population size would have not been stable. This also means that the extended family with many children, that we often associate with the past, was only a reality for glimpse in time. Only the few generations during the population boom lived in families with many children – before and after two children are the norm. The future will resemble our past, except that the children are not dying, but are never born in the first place.

Between 1950 and today it was mostly a widening of the entire pyramid that was responsible for the increase of the world population. What is responsible for the increase of the world population from now on is not a widening of the the base, but a fill up of the population above the base. Not children will be added to the world population, but people in working age and old age.

At a country level “peak child” is followed by a time in which the country benefits from a “demographic dividend”. The demographic structure of a country is reshaped so that the proportion of people in working age rises and that of the dependent young generation falls. The demographic dividend can result in a rise of productive contributions and a growing economy. FOOTWEAR Sandals on YOOXCOM Chiara Ferragni kMSbk4h0
Now there is reason to expect that the world as a whole benefits from a "demographic dividend".

The big demographic transition that the world entered more than a century ago is coming to an end: Global population growth has peaked half a century ago, the number of babies is reaching its peak, and the age profile of the women in the world is changing so that ‘population momentum’ is slowly losing its momentum. This is not to say that feeding and supporting a still rising world population will be easy, but we are certainly on the way to a new balance where it is not like in our long past when high mortality kept population growth in check, but when it is low fertility that will keep the world population from growing.

Population growth is driven by three demographic components: fertility, mortality, and migration. In this section we delve into the drivers of population growth and begin with the widely used model to describe the observed pattern of change — the demographic transition.

Population growth results from the difference between births and deaths – the two visualizations below show how these two aspects have changed since 1950.

The difference gives us the global population growth in absolute numbers: Every year 141 million are born and 57 million die – this means that we are adding 84.21 million to the world population every year.

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run we show the dramatic decline of mortality that the world has seen. And in the entry on fertility we show how socio-economic changes over the course of modernization – a decline of child mortality, structural changes to the economy, and a rise of the status and opportunities for women – all contribute to a very substantial reduction of fertility.

The Croydon Community Against Trafficking (CCAT) is a registered charity (no. 1141863) whose aim is to stop the injustice of human trafficking primarily in the borough of Croydon, but also, through its model Your Community Against Human Trafficking (YCAHT), provides support and assistance to other anti-trafficking community groups across London and to other parts of UK.

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